Now Mónica Paez-Vacas and colleagues have examined the H. bocagei clade and report that it contains four previously described species (Hyloxalus bocagei, H. faciopunctulatus, H. maculosus, and H. sauli) as well as two new species (Hyloxalus yasuni and Hyloxalus italoi). The clade is endemic to the eastern Andean slopes and adjacent Amazonian lowlands in southern Colombia, Ecuador and northern Peru. The authors assign the name of Hyloxalus bocagei to the populations surroundings Volcán Reventador (Provincia Napo, Ecuador); describe the tadpoles of Hyloxalus bocagei, H. maculosus, H. italoi, and H. yasuni; and report on the vocalizations of H. bocagei, H. maculosus, H. sauli, H. italoi , and H. yasuni. Adults of italoi and yasuni were indistinguishable using morphological characters, however molecular data, call parameters, and tadpole morphology supported the recognition of these two species as cryptic taxa. Their phylogeny confirms the close relationship of members of the bocagei clade with Andean relatives of Hyloxalus and recurrent dispersal events from the Andes to the Amazon Basin in the late Miocene (less than10 MYA). Their data also support the bocagei clade as the sister to the Andean H. subpunctatus clade.
Members of the bocagei clade are diurnal, stream-side frogs. Males are often found calling on rocks and from crevices, and when disturbed, jump into the water, returning to their calling site several hours later. Males of may also use human modified structures such as plastic drain pipes and concrete walls. The eggs are deposited on the forest floor and guarded by the male, upon hatching he transports them to a stream.
Paez-Vacas, M. I., L. A. Coloma and J. C. Santos. 2010. Systematics of the Hyloxalus bocagei complex (Anura: Dendrobatidae), description of two new cryptic species, and recognition of H. maculosus. Zootaxa 2711: 1–75.