The Timber Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus, is a long lived (20 to 30 years) forest-floor predator that plays an important role in ecosystem energy flow. As such, Timber Rattlesnakes contribute substantially to the stability of the structure and function of forest communities. However, over much of its distribution the timber rattlesnake is exposed to direct persecution and extensive habitat loss causing many populations to disappear. Currently Timbers are listed as threatened, endangered, extirpated, or a species of concern in most of the states it inhabits and the continued existence of viable populations is dependent on large forest tracts throughout Appalachia. The Timber Rattlesnake maintains sizable populations that are associated with large areas of publicly owned forest land which are multiple-use management areas. Thus the rattlesnake is sharing land that is used by humans for recreation, wildlife, and timber production. This association provides an opportunity for successful Timber Rattlesnake conservation but information on the direct or indirect effects of logging on this species has not been examined. Howard K. Reinert and colleagues have studied the direct impact of current logging practices and habitat alteration on a population of timber rattlesnakes in Pennsylvania before, during, and after commercial timbering operations; and examined the short-term response of snakes to logging activities. The research team monitored 67 snakes with radio telemetry over periods as long as four years, and marked and recaptured 306 snakes. Survey efforts were done before, during, and after commercial logging operations on three parcels of land. Snake mortality related to logging was low, less than 2% of the population per year, but potential mortality could have reached 7%. Logging and the subsequent habitat changes did not alter behavior or movement patterns of monitored snakes and the snakes with established activity ranges used these areas both during and after logging operations.Logging increased structural diversity of the habitat and, concurrently, diversity of habitat used by timber rattlesnakes increased. The results suggest that the opportunity exists to develop forest management practices that provide timber products while limiting the impacts timber rattlesnake populations. The authors suggest logging contractors be required to avoid killing snakes while they are working. The entire article can be found on-line.