Friday, March 18, 2016

A new colubrid genus and species from India

Wallaceophis gujarateneis sp. n 

A photograph of an uncollected snakes in 2007 paper depicted a small yellow snake with two dark stripes, the species discussed in the article lacked stripes, and a follow up investigation revealed a new species in a new genus with a very ancient history. Mirza et al. 2016 obtained a second specimen of the snake from Gujarta, India. Results from molecular data show that the snake belongs to a clade arid dwelling snakes with Platyceps, Eirenis, Spalerosophis, Macroprotodon and Lytorhynchus. The snake however greatly differs morphologically as well as genetically which warrants erection of a new genus to accommodate the new species from Gujarat.

Wallaceophis gujarateneis sp. nov. measures SVL 250–930 mm and differs from most colubrid genera in lacking hypapophyses on posterior dorsal vertebrae  and in bearing nine maxillary teeth and the posterior-most teeth are subequal, nine palatine teeth. Dorsal scale reduction characterized by vertebral reductions, increase of scale rows posterior to neck, a single lateral reduction at midbody and regular vertebral reductions in posterior half of the body. Rostral not visible from above, a small presubocular present. Eight supralabials, fourth and fifth in contact with orbit, anal undivided, 215–216 ventrals, 51–54 subcaudals, hemipenis subcylindrical, spinose throughout and 3–4 dorsal scale row wide black longitudinal stripe running from the post nasal to the tail tip on each side on a wheat colored dorsum.

The type specimen was collected from a manmade water hole near an irrigation canal along with a few juveniles of Xenochropis piscator. The species appears to be diurnal as it was collected at ca. 11:15 hours. The type locality, Khengariya village, is situated in the dry plains of central-western region of Gujarat state. The type locality habitat is in an area of Desert thorn forest. The annual precipitation is 838mm. Majority of the precipitation occurs during the months of July and August. The temperature varies from as low as 12°C during winter and as high as 43°C during the hot summer days. The snake snakes behavior suggests it is aquatic and fossorial. An individual retained in captivity was readily ate a Hemidactylus gecko.

Citation:
Mirza ZA, Vyas R, Patel H, Maheta J, Sanap RV (2016) A New Miocene-Divergent Lineage of Old World Racer Snake from India. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0148380. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148380

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