Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Crack pots, insanity, and some really sick human beings

Snakes provide a variety of ecosystem services, not the least of which is rodent control. This is a free service provide by nature. However, like much of what is free, Republicans insist on privatizing it so somebody can make a profit.

Arizona HB2022 failed on a tie vote yesterday (April 10, 2017). The bill, if passed, would have allowed citizens to shoot "snake shot" within city limits in the State of Arizona. The Arizona Daily Star today (April 11) attributes the failure of the bill to a letter from Mike Cardwell an employee of the San Bernadino County Sherrif's office (California) and a herpetologist. Kudo's to Mike for sending the letter. The Cardwell letter included the following "The bottom line when it comes to destroying small animals like rattlesnakes is that that gun fire presents a much greater danger to by-standers than the snake itself."

Where is the Hantavirus when you need?  Oh, the snakes are controlling the rodents that carry it! The New Mexico Department of Health announced April 7th that a 54-year-old man from San Juan County has died of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). This is the second case of HPS confirmed in New Mexico this year. Snakes control rodents that carry this virus and reduce the probability that it will be transmitted to humans.

Just so you understand where this kind of proposed legislation comes from - here is the argument for the law, made by Chris Eger, at Guns.com. The comments that accompany this post are eye-opening.

A House measure advancing through committee would allow the use of specialty ammo inside Arizona cities for snakes and rats but is drawing fire from animal rights groups.
The bill, proposed earlier this month in the state House, has been winding its way through hearings and has gotten an initial nod from lawmakers, though its sponsor cautions it is not an animal regulation proposal.
“It’s a firearms bill,” said Rep. Jay Lawrence, R-Scottsdale. “It’s not a bill that deals with harming snakes or rats or any other vermin, it merely is a firearms bill.”
Lawrence’s measure, HB 2022, would amend state law to allow the use of rat or snake shot to control pests. The cartridges, instead of using a solid bullet, utilize a plastic cap or shell that holds a quantity of small diameter shot. The bill’s language only allows for .22 caliber shot rounds with pellets 1.3mm or less in diameter.
Currently, only the use of blanks is allowed within city limits to control pests.
Not all are impressed by the bill, especially reptile advocates who point out there are at least four species of endangered snakes at large in Arizona.
Russ Johnson of the Phoenix Herpetological Society told local media the proposal is fraught with pitfalls.
“Do we really want people shooting guns in the city limits next to houses?” said Johnson. “You’re talking about shooting rats. So you’re shooting on your rooftop, so you got bird shot spraying everywhere. OK, if you’re shooting a snake, you’re pointing down. You’re gonna get a ricochet even though it’s pellet.”
HB 2022 has passed both the JPS and Rules committees.
Filed Under: Ammunition, Politics & 2nd Amendment


Monday, April 10, 2017

Logging & Leatherbacks


Leatherback turtle hatchlings. Photo Credit: Juan Patiño
 Debris from logging in tropical forests is threatening the survival of hatchling leatherback turtles and the success of mothers at one of the world's most important nesting sites in Colombia.

New research by the University of Exeter and the Doñana Biological Station in Seville, Spain, has found that debris on beaches caused by logging activity is impacting both young turtles and their mothers during the key periods of their life cycles.

Leatherbacks are at particular risk of being caught up in fishing nets and longlines as bycatch, because they are migratory, travelling long distances worldwide.

Many breeding sites are already under pressure from tourism.

But now, research published in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series has revealed that the logging is an additional, previously underestimated threat.

To nest and breed successfully, females must be able to cross the sandy beaches to dig their nest to successfully incubate their eggs.

In turn, hatchlings must be able to cross the sand unaccompanied to reach the water.

Researchers found that the beach debris hindered this movement.The team monitored 216 turtles, comparing their activity in areas with high amounts of debris to low amounts, in a globally significant nesting site in Colombia.
 
They also manipulated the amount of debris to see how it changed behavior.

They found that females which nested in areas with higher amounts of debris were spent more time building their nest and tended to do so closer to the shoreline.

This meant they were more vulnerable to flooding, which puts their eggs at risk.

Some females were even wounded in the process.

The debris also meant it took longer for hatchlings to reach the sea, increasing their chance of being eaten by predators and meaning they had to expend more energy, making them more vulnerable.

Professor Brendan Godley, director of the Centre for Ecology and Conservation at the University of Exeter's Penryn Campus in Cornwall, is a co-author on the research.

He said: "Leatherback turtles are already under immense pressure, from fisheries bycatch and are also one of the species prone to ingesting marine plastic litter.

"Our research clearly indicates that logging presents another threat.

"It is now paramount that beach clean-up operations are built into logging activities to prevent further damage to this species."

Dr Adolfo Marco Llorente, of the Doñana Biological Station, said: "Although logging debris does not affect rates of nesting, it has a significant impact on where and how nests are built, which negatively affects both mothers and hatchlings.

"This is on a scale that could lead over time to reduction of the overall population.

"Simple measures could make a real difference, such as repositioning organic waste areas, or salvaging the wood debris as an energy source.

"It's also essential that logging practices that reduce the impact on the marine environment are implemented."



 Patino-Martinez J, Godley BJ,  Quiñones L,  Marco A. 2017.  Impact of tropical forest logging on the reproductive success of leatherback turtles. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 569: 205 DOI: 10.3354/meps12064

Friday, April 7, 2017

Lowland amphibians are at higher risk from future climate warming.


A new study of Peruvian frogs living at a wide variety of elevations -- from the Amazon floodplain to high Andes peaks -- lends support to the idea that lowland amphibians are at higher risk from future climate warming.

That's because the lowland creatures already live near the maximum temperatures they can tolerate, while high-elevation amphibians might be more buffered from increased temperatures, according to a study by University of Michigan ecologist Rudolf von May and his colleagues published online April 6 in the journal Ecology and Evolution.

Previous studies have suggested that lowland reptiles and amphibians are especially vulnerable to climate warming. But in most cases, those conclusions were based on computer modeling work that incorporated a limited amount of field data.

"Understanding how species respond to climatic variation is critical for conserving species in future climatic conditions. Yet for most groups of organisms distributed in tropical areas, data about species' critical thermal limits are limited," said von May, a postdoctoral researcher in the U-M Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.

"I think the contribution of our study is that it focuses on a group of closely related frog species distributed along a single montane gradient and that it includes empirical data on species' tolerance to heat and cold, as well as air temperatures measured along the same gradient."

In the process of conducting the study, which involved more than two years of fieldwork, von May and his colleagues identified three previously unknown frog species. Those newly discovered species will be described separately in a series of journal articles.

The elevational-gradient study focused on the thermal ecology and evolution of 22 species of land-breeding frogs, which are also known as terrestrial-breeding frogs, in southern Peru's Manu National Park and surrounding areas. Sampled elevations ranged from the Amazon River floodplain, at 820 feet above sea level, to 12,000-foot Andes Mountains peaks.

The region in and around Manu National Park is known for long-held records of biodiversity including more than 1,000 species of birds -- about 10 percent of the world's bird species -- and more than 1,200 species of butterflies. In addition, the park contains an estimated 2.2 percent of the world's amphibians and 1.5 percent of its reptiles.

While most frogs lay eggs in water, terrestrial-breeding frogs use a specialized reproductive mode called direct development: A clutch of embryos hatch directly into froglets; there are no free-living tadpoles. Terrestrial-breeding frogs form a diverse group that can exploit a wide variety of habitats, as long as those locations contain sufficient moisture.

In the study, the researchers looked at how closely related frog species differ in their elevational distribution and their tolerance to heat and cold in a region of the tropical Andes where temperature increase is predicted to be detrimental for most species.

"These measurements were taken in order to determine whether tropical frogs could take the heat -- or cold -- predicted for tropical regions as a result of climate change," von May said.

The researchers found that the frogs' tolerance to heat varied from 77 degrees Fahrenheit to 95 degrees and that, as expected, highland species tolerated much lower temperatures than lowland species.

Frogs living in high-elevation grasslands tolerated near-freezing temperatures, which they experience during the dry season, as well as moderately high temperatures, which they may experience during sunny days.

When considering the temperature of the microhabitats in which the frogs live, the results suggest tropical lowland species live close to their thermal limit. Amphibians living at high elevation might be more buffered from future temperature increases because the highest temperatures they can tolerate are farther away from the maximum temperatures that they regularly experience in the wild.

Von May is the first author of the Ecology and Evolution paper, "Divergence of thermal physiological traits in terrestrial breeding frogs along a tropical elevational gradient."

Citation
Rudolf von May, Alessandro Catenazzi, Ammon Corl, Roy Santa-Cruz, Ana Carolina Carnaval, Craig Moritz. Divergence of thermal physiological traits in terrestrial breeding frogs along a tropical elevational gradient. Ecology and Evolution, 2017; DOI: 10.1002/ece3.2929